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英语中全部修辞手法解释和例句

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1、Simile 明喻

明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性.

标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.

例如:

①He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.

②I wandered lonely as a cloud.

③Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.

2、Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成.

例如:

①Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

②Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

3、Metonymy 借喻,转喻

借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称.

I.以容器代替内容,例如:

①The kettle boils. 水开了.

②The room sat silent. 全屋人安静地坐着.

II.以资料.工具代替事物的名称,例如:

Lend me your ears, please. 请听我说.

III.以作者代替作品,例如:

a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集

VI.以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如:

I had the muscle, and they made money out of it. 我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱.

4、Synecdoche 提喻

提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般.

例如:

①There are about 100 hands working in his factory.(部分代整体)

他的厂里约有100名工人.

②He is the Newton of this century.(特殊代一般)

他是本世纪的牛顿.

③The fox goes very well with your cap.(整体代部分)

这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配.

5、Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

  这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物.通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移,“以感觉写感觉”。通感技巧的运用,能突破语言的局限,丰富表情达意的审美情趣,起到增强文采的艺术效果。比如:欣赏建筑的重复与变化的样式会联想到音乐的重复与变化的节奏;闻到酸的东西会联想到尖锐的物体;听到飘渺轻柔的音乐会联想到薄薄的半透明的纱子;又比如朱自清《荷塘月色》里的“ 微风过处送来缕缕清香,仿佛远处高楼上渺茫的歌声似的”。

  例如:

①The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)

鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音.

②Taste the music of Mozart.(用嗅觉形容听觉)

品尝Mozart的音乐.

6、Personification 拟人

拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物.

例如:

①The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.(把夜拟人化)

②I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.(把鸟拟人化)

7、Hyperbole 夸张

夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果..

例如:

①I beg a thousand pardons.

②Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

③When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.

8、Parallelism 排比, 平行

这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体.

例如:

①No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly  happy  till all are happy.

②In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to  answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

9、Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话.

例如:

①He is out visiting the necessary.   他出去方便一下.

②His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽.

③Deng Xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)

10、Allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)

建立在假借过去或别处的事例与对象之上,传达暗示,影射或者讥讽现世各种现象的含义。

英文解释:an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive   

resemblances; an extended metaphor 摘自英语专业《大学英语教程》一书

这是一种源于希腊文的修辞法,意为"换个方式的说法".它是一种形象的描述,具有双重性,表层含义与真正意味的是两回事.

例如:

①Make the hay while the sun shines.

表层含义:趁着出太阳的时候晒草

真正意味:趁热打铁

②It's time to turn plough into sword.

表层含义:是时候把犁变成剑

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